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Ocean Freight

A SHIPPER'S GUIDE TO CARGO VESSEL TYPES AND SIZES

Most of the world’s cargo is shipped via container vessels. The vessels vary in sizes and dimensions – which determines where they may or may not sail. That is not all, different types of ships are dedicated to specific commodities and cargo types. The Freight Forwarding Experts share a quick recap of the world of ships as it stands today.

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A Little History of the Container Vessel

If you have read our other article on container vessel types and sizesAbout container sizes, then you know that the first container vessel was actually a modified tanker vessel (more on these ships below), the Ideal X, which journeyed from New Ark, New Jersey to Houston, Texas on April 26th, 1955. It carried just under 60 containers, 35-foot trailers with removed chassis.

Today, the largest containerships can carry well over 20,000 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). A 20-foot container measures 1 TEU, a 40-foot container measures 2 TEU, meaning that large containerships carry thousands of containers. The technical progress and size growth that containerships have experienced is astonishing! The ability to load more cargo onto one single ship increases efficiency and thus reduces carbon emissions. The popularity of the containership is due to the multi-modal quality of the standard ISO container, which can be loaded onto trucks, barges or transported by rail.

Modern containerships have their holds (the space where the cargo is stored) divided into bays with cell guides (they are also referred to as cellular ships) in which the crane operators can snugly fit the 20- and 40-foot containers. This enables efficient, speedy loading. Every deep sea container’s hold is capped with a hatch cover, which benefits both the stability and safety of the ship.

Container vessels vary by many sizes and design element in order to host special equipment and commodities such as reefer containers or hazardous cargo, but it is worth mentioning that some may be equipped with cranes. Such ships are referred to as geared (as opposed to gearless ships, which do not feature a crane) or as lift-on/lift-off (LoLo). While this means that these vessels can visit ports that do not offer cranes, those are becoming rarer – and so are LoLo containerships.

The way the supra structure of the ports developed enables fast and easy loading of the containerships today. Tide, water depth and size of port basins, availability of pilots & tug boats, size & reach of (gentry) cranes, availability of van carriers or reach stackers, hinterland connectivity (road, rail & waterways), customs facilities – they all work in conjunction to make container shipping happen.

  • The correct arrangement of the containers on the ship is called the stowage plan. A container vessel typically calls at several port during its journey: each time the ship berths at port, a certain number of containers will be loaded or unloaded. Correct container arrangement is key to port handing efficiency – imagine having to unload a container and realize that it is located at the bottom of the vessel bay, under a stack of other containers!

    The load plan is designed by vessel planners based on the booking and shipping instructions (including Verified Gross Mass), and takes load & discharge ports, equipment types, commodities (e.g. hazardous material) and weight into consideration. The chief officer monitors the discharge and loading process, and intervenes onboard the vessel if necessary.

    An efficient stowage plan contributes to the safety of life at seaUneven weight distribution across the vessel can have dramatic consequences, as the vessel can bend. Stacking heavier cargo on top of a container stack can cause it to collapse and threaten the life of the sailors. Refer to our Verified Gross Mass and Safety of Life a Sea (SoLaS) resourcesAbout Saftey Of Life At Seas to make sure your cargo is transported safely.

Start Monitoring Your Shipments

All containerships are mandatorily equipped with an Automatic Identification System (AIS). This device shares the GPS coordinates of the ship, preventing collisions between vessels and providing visibility in difficult weather condition. It also enables track & trace services such as myDHLi.

Key Cargo Vessel Types

Cargo vessels are classified on the basis of the type of cargo that they carry, their packaging (or lack thereof) or the way it is meant be loaded onto the vessel.

General Cargo & Break-Bulk Cargo Vessel types

These ships existed before there were any containership and can host a variety of items (garments, chemicals, foods), but they all need to be packaged – and loaded – individually in boxes, crates or barrels. These goods are referred to as general or break-bulk cargo.

Unlike container vessels, cranes do not work with these ships. The popular image of a dock worker carrying a sack over to the dock of a ship is directly linked to the widespread usage of these vessels in centuries prior. 

Dry Bulk Vessels

If break-bulk cargo needs to be packaged, dry bulk does not. Dry bulk vessels are designed to transport loose cargo in large quantities, like grain or coal. Despite the popularity of container shipping, these ships still represent a significant share of the world’s global vessel fleet. Like container vessels, they can be geared or gearless – meaning that they may or may not feature a crane for more loading flexibility.

Tankers

These ships carry liquid cargo, most often oil and gas. Tank ships can also be used to carry chemicals or foodstuff. With dry bulk and modern container ships, they are amongst the largest ships to roam the planet.

Roll-on/ roll-off (RoRo) Vessels

Whereas LoLo ships are equipped with cranes, RoRo vessels are built with ramps that enable the loading and unloading of vehicles (cars, trucks…) by means of… rolling! 

Multi-Purpose Vessels

As their name suggests, these vessels can host multiple cargo types. One can be equipped with both ISO container bays and ramps for RoRo cargo, while another may be fitted to receive both liquid and dry bulk cargo. 

Refrigerated / Reefer Ships

Much like reefer containers, refrigerated ships are temperature-controlled and suitable for sensitive goods. While reefer containers enable consistent atmosphere control and temperature monitoring from door to door, reefer vessels are still frequently used for perishables commodities.

Make sure your temperature-sensitive goods are transported in the best conditions with DHL Ocean Thermonet and DHL Ocean Reefer Perishables. 

Containership Sizes

Containership sizes are often ranked by their TEU capacity, ranging from a few hundred TEUs for feeder vessels to 18,000 TEUs or more for Ultra-Large Container Vessels (UCLVs).

Size matters because the ability to load more containers onto the ship is key to efficiency, but that is not all. Being able to operate in certain port terminals or being able to navigate through the Panama or Suez canals are just as defining a factor for efficient seaborne cargo transportation.  

Only a few ports across the globe, such as Rotterdam or Singapore, have the infrastructure to handle the ultra-large container vessels. However, even a Panamax ship will be unable to call at certain ports if it is fully loaded. The ports that very large or fully-laden ships can berth at are called deepwater ports, As explored above, the feeder vessels will ensure the good connection between the terminals.

Feeders and Barges

Feeder vessels  have a capacity ranging from  200  to a maximum of  3,000 TEUs. They can operate in smaller ports that large container vessels cannot berth at. Their will feed cargo to these large ships – referred to as  mother vessels  – in deep-sea hubs and transport cargo from the large vessels back to shore. Strong coordination saves time and enables the larger vessels to cover a reduced number of ports. Feeder vessels can be geared or gearless.

While they do not qualify as feeder vessels,  container-carrying barges  are used to transport containerized cargo through inland waterways that bigger vessels can also not enter. In this type of intermodal transport, the barge can carry up to 300 TEUs in Europe, while in North America they can range 450-900 TEUs.

Similarly, vessels operating on the Saint Lawrence Strait are limited in capacity due to draught limitation, but they are not feeders. They are specialized ships that require an “ice-class“, which enables them to operate throughout the year – even through a massive ice drift.

Panamax and Other Straits

Panamax and Neo-Panamax ships can be routed through the Panama Canal in Central America, as they are nearly as wide as its locks allow for. Neo-Panamax ships are wider (up to 49 meters), longer and deeper (a ship’s depth is also referred to as draft) than Panamax, as they fit the Canal’s new dimensions since larger locks have been constructed. This enables Neo-Panamax ships to carry up to 14,000 TEUs, while Panamax vessels can only carry around 5,000.

Some transportation routes bypass the Panama Canal, thus imposing less restrictions on the design of the ships using it. These larger ships are called Post-Panamax. They gave way to other very large and now Ultra-Large Container Vessels (ULCV), carrying 18,000 TEUs and more. Suezmax ships can be routed through the Suez Canal– most often, this size covers tanker vessels. Their beam (the ship’s width) measures up to 50 meters, and can be even wider if the ship has a reduced draft.

Even larger with an even greater cargo capacity (20,000 TEUs and up), some ships are referred to as Post-Suezmax, because their dimensions exceed what the strait or canal can allow for.

A Shipper’s Guide to Container Types & Dimensions

Read our next article to find out about 'container sizes and dimensions' – ‘A Shipper's Guide To Container Types and Dimensions?’.

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